Roman Road Abstracts South and West of England

Where numbers are given, they refer to Margary's numbering system, and these Abstracts occur first. Then follows un-numbered Roman Roads in alphabetical order by place. Finally, there are general abstracts on Roman Roads, including methods and theories.

Old Dover Road, Canterbury

Police Station TR 1510 5735 cobbles seen either edge of Watling Street or yards along it.
A Hicks, Canterbury Arch Trust , Britannia XXVIII , 1997, p450; XXIX p431 1998.


Probable remains at Sittingbourne

Watching brief for sewer cutting found at 52 - 54 East Street TQ9114 6552 a linear E W feature beneath East Street with metalled surfaces.
Britannia XXXVIII 2007 p302

River Stour, Canterbury

Roman Watling Street located dipping towards r Stour, St Mildred's Tannery TR 145 577.
S Pratt, Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXXIII 2002, p353.

Spring Head, Southfleet, Kent

100m firmly established TQ6170 7281, and branch Road along Ebbsfleet valley, in advance of Channel Rail link.
P Andrews, Wessex Arch, Britannia XXXIV 2003, p358


Brockley Hill, Edgware

Roman Watling Street located at Cannon's Corner TQ 1830 9290 and E ditch. Geophysis former Government Buildings TQ1783 9343 beside A5 found two N - S features c 13m 40' apart possible side ditches. Bockley Hill House TQ1738 9403 excavation gave possible side ditch.
B Ford, Oxford Arch, Britannia XXXIII 2002, p340; XXXII 2001 p368.

North Gate Street, Canterbury

Metalling found in laying services St Johns Hospital TR1527 5834, flanked by a ditch with Samian and other pottery.
S Pratt, Cant Arch Trust, Britannia XXXI 2000, p429

Westbere, Hersden, Kent

Traces of a metalled Road parallel to A28 (Irland Road) TR2125 6235, reported 1999 & 2001. A settlement to the south TR2130 6235 with a metalled Road NW - SE leading off from Road 10.
Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXXIV, 2003, p358; XXXII 2001 p385; XXX 1999 p373. R Cross & J Rady, Irland Rd Hersden, Canterbury's Arch 1999 - 2000 p27 - 30.

Burgate, Canterbury***

Trench across Church Street TR 154 577 just outside Burgate found cambered metalling of Roman Road, flanked by beam slots and clay floor with Roman pottery.
S Pratt, Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXVIII , 1997 p448.


10 - 16 Wincheap, Canterbury

Evaluation TR1449 5736 located Roman Road from Lympne (Portus Lemanis) entering Canterbury.
Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXXIII, 2002, p353.

13 ROCHESTER - HASTINGS, Iden Green Sussex ****

Cut-back and side ditches found TQ7999 3101.
C Johnson, Arch SE, Britannia XXXI, 2000, p431


Evaluation TR999 400 by geophysics & trenches found small Roman town. Unclear if the roads found.
Excavations by KARU, Britannia XXX, 1999, p372.


Possible Agger Causeway at Ashford

Watching brief of trench cutting at TQ 0675 3626 by Canterbury Arch Trust observed deposits suggesting Roman Road of ragstone chippings on a causeway of re-deposited clay.
Britannia XXXVIII 2007, p300

14 LONDON - LEWES - alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig NGRs for each alignment start & finish. Plus likely Roman sighting positions, sections cut, iron slag metalling, & deviations from Margary.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis @ NMR Swindon.

Ridgeway - Plumpton - Street ****

12m wide trench cut, finding 8m wide steeply cambered roadway. Made of layers of flint, gravel and sand, with ditch 4.5m to north.
D H Millum, Sussex Past & Present, August 2009, Sussex Arch Soc p372.

Roman Greensand Way at Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex ****

Results of watching brief on road works between Sayers Common and Newtimber, in 1990. A section through the Roman Greensand Way was discovered in a drainage trench. Construction of the road surface recorded.
Chris Butler, Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 130 (1992) pp 238 - 41 (illus.)


Going along narrow footpath, down from Seaford Head, along Chyngton Lane, across A259 into North Chyngton, on the west side of path there may be an agger 40' wide between 2 old hedges.
R S Osmaston, Sussex Past & Present, Aug 2000 p11


Alignment Plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig NGRs for each alignment. Plus likely Roman sighting positions, posting stations, & sections cut.
G H Hargreaves, PH D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

New Interpretation for Stane Street

Problems of the Gumber section (Margary Ch 11, Typical Sections) where the agger is too narrow for 2-way traffic, have been explain by erosion. Davies has pointed out that not all the multiple layers of the agger were laid initially (some being subsequent repairs); the initial agger layers look as if they were laid to form a level terrace on sloping ground (Margary's section is defective as he's removed the slope); while the Road was provided with two 25' wide lanes on either side of the agger with a single course of flints, presumeably for light traffic. Kenny provides good section drawings. Davies goes on to suggest that further repairs layers likely to have been added to the initial level Agger Terrace, causing greater camber - but the final layers (of broken flints and chalk) he feels were most likely Post Roman intended to form a boundary bank, erosion not forming this shape. [The erosion theory could apply to the later repair layers Ed.] A recent section nearby found 30m wide Road without the central agger but on flatter ground, showing wheel ruts.
James Kenny, Roman Roads (around Chichester), Past Matters, the Heritage of Chichester District, 2005, Chichester District Council. Hugh Davies, Roads in Roman Britain, Tempus, 2002, p111

Alfoldean, West Sussex *****

Roman Posting Station on Stane Street PQ 118 330. Field walking 1981/2 to check S E Winbolt's alignment not conclusive. Excavation 1983 indicated that Stane Street lies probably under eastern half of A29.
Interim report by Judie English & John Leveson Gower, Sussex Archaeological Society Newsletter No. 47, pp. 456 -7, Dec 1985.

Roadside settlement at Alfodean

Review of the history and modern work of the development of the settlement by Stane Street at Alfodean, and the relation of the Roman Road to the settlement. Includes slag metalling, rows of timber stakes as foundation of a bridge across Arun, settlement dating from Roman times and comparison with other Roadside settlements, possible side ditches, land plots with boundaries perpendicular to Stane Street - the boundaries being trackways c 2m wide - the plots between 68m to 131m wide - similar to layouts at Godmanchester & Hibaldstow, mansio, exact estimated position of Stane Street through settlement.
M Luke & J Wells, Sussex Archaeological Collections 138, 75, 2000

Bignor, West Sussex *****

Section of Roman Road revealed east of OS course of Stane Street.
Britannia Vol XXII, 1990.

Original Stane Street alignment

Magilton suggested Chichester unlikely to predate Stane Street, so its southmost alignment may have continued to connect with an early port of the coast.
John Magilton, Roman Roads in the Manhood Peninsular, in the Archaeology of Chichester 1995

Colliers Wood, Merton SW19 ****

Stretch of Stane Street observed during contractors' work in High Street, TQ2673 7026, to North of 1998 observation, where 2 trenches opened over line TQ2665 7018. Stane Street ran over site of Merton Priory, metalled with gravel and flint, with side ditches which also had gravel banks. Road 12 - 16m wide, later 16 - 20m, and 10cms - 30cms thick. Contained pottery 1st - 3rd Cent, and coins - latest mid 4th Cent. Sealed in late and post Roman alluvial flood deposits.
R Cowie, D Axby, MOLAS, Britannia XXXI, 2000, p418; XXX 1999, p362.; XXIX 1998, p415


Alignment Plans

Detailed alignment plans from Blindley Heath Godstone to the coast, with 8 fig GRs, plus sections cut & likely Roman sighting points.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

Burgess Hill, 113 Church Road, West Sussex ****

Mid Sussex Archaeological Team carried out a watching brief on adjacent site on Margary's line of London - Brighton Roman Road. Marjary's findings confirmed, but construction details differed slightly.
"The Roman Road at Burgess Hill", Chris Butler, Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 135 (1997) p 301.

Revision in Hassocks area

Route found by Butler (see Friars Oak, Sussex) during golf course construction is proposed as the line of the main Roman Road. Shields provides documentary evidence that this is part of a more extensive previously reported route; and that Margary's route is wrong in several places - being early turnpike and modern engineering. Consequently the main Roman Road would follow Couchman's route (154) - and the double parallel routes shown by Margary would not occur. The destination of Brighton is thus doubted. Coachman's route proceeds north beyond the junction with Butler's line - and crossed 140 - suggesting a new Roman Road to iron working sites at Crawley. The route 154 (and so 150) south through Clayton Gap or Pass still uncertain.
G Shields, Sussex Archaeological Collections, Vol 137, pp81-90, 1999.

Margary's route confirmed at Haywards Heath, Sussex ****

Part of the London - Brighton/Portslade Roman Road investigated by trenching at TQ 3215 2330. Badly disturbed sandstone metalling found on Margary's alignment. No evidence observed on Ordnance Survey's line.
D Rudling, Fieldwork for south Coast Power Ltd, Archaeology South-East (UCLFAU); Britannia XXXI, p 429, 2000.

Margary's line favoured at Haywoods Heath ****

Investigation ahead of development at TQ 321 233, excavated 8 trenches across Margary's line, and 3 across line shown on OS maps to the east. Half of trenches on Margary showed no evidence, half show sandstone blocks of varying densities upon clay subsoil. Smaller, smoother sandstone pieces found in places, possibly remains of surface metalling. No evidence found on OS line. One trench cut a low bank identified by Margary as an agger, found to be 30cms of silt clay with no metalling evidence. Authors conclude evidence supports Margary line, but with much plough damage. The smaller smoother sandstone found on site of former field boundary, where surface metalling may have been protected from ploughing. On their own authors conclude excavations would not have proved a Roman Road.
N Griffin, R James, C Butler, Sussex Arch Collections 142, 139, 2005

South Downs to the Coast

Shields surveys previous proposed Roman routes, including others through the Downs than the London road. From this pattern Shields suggests a Roman port at Copperas Gap, between Southwick and Aldrington. It is admitted that firmer evidence for the Roman Roads and Port is needed. The Brighton destination for 150 is again questioned.
Glen Shields, Sussex Archaeological Collections, Vol 143, 2005, p135.


Two alignments of this Road from Stane Street are now shown on OS maps. Between them Whaley finds massive remains up Winterfold Hill, taking route postulated by Margary. On eastern field boundary of Jelley's Hollow TQ 0690 4215 an agger terrace (agger built up on down-hill side only). Two massive terraces go up both sides of final gorge of Jelley's Hollow. Interpretation: eastern terrace damaged by water action in Roman times (but otherwise in good condition), and replaced in Roman times by west terrace - northern part of which progressively destroyed by its hollow way.
Ordnance Survey Maps TQ 06 43. NMR Roman Road 151. R H G Whaley, NEHHAS Achives, Roman Roads


Engineered terraces from eastern terrace of Jelley's Hollow (last item) along path which has worn hollow way to their west. Found by OS in 1966 unpublished field investigation. Whaley continues these terraces to Winterfold Cottage TQ 0638 4313.
NMR Roman Road 151. R H G Whaley NEHHAS Archives, Roman Roads.


On OS maps from their 1966 field investigation, but in error. Fine terrace by Winterfold Cottage connecting with Whaley's terrace (last item) climbing up side of valley. On flat ground swinging round to Helmet copse alignment. OS course here following its earlier projected alignment, not going through its actual findings. Agger terrace on southern edge of Helmet Copse with side ditches visible - Whaley measures these at 62'. Further bumps on paths and elsewhere, terrace by Ride Lane. This alignment points at Temple on Farley Heath, and at Jelley's Hollow, and is parallel to the alignment off Stane Street - appears to be the primary alignment.
Ordnance Survey Maps TQ 06 43. NMR Roman Road 151. R H G Whaley, NEHHAS Archives, Roman Roads


OS could find no evidence in 1966 on their Helmet Copse alignment to Temple (last item), assuming an easterly detour round high ground of The Burrows. Whaley finds terracing round west side of The Burrows and Mayorhouse Farm on to Zig-Zag TQ 0542 4428, northern leg points to gap in Temple bank.
Course marked on latest edition of OS Map of Roman Britain for all these 151 entries is wrong. Course uncertain route of previous editions going well west of temple has become inked in, but it does not conform to NMR (which is the data source ). At that scale the alignment off Stane Street which is pointing to the temple should be continued thereto.
NMR Roman Road 151. R H G Whaley, NEHHAS Archives, Roman Roads.


SAS investigated this Road extensively in 1970s (NEHHAS Archives, Roman Roads), postulated a fork near Temple. One branch ran past Guildford where Margary records remains under 151. Other branch ran over Zig-Zag terrace on Newlands Corner recorded by Margary and on northwards, for which Margary suggests some objectives. Light scatter of evidence, but zero *. Whaley has found further massive terraces, cutting & causeway and zig-zag on the northern route. Causeway at TQ 048 460 with cutting immediately north after 'branch' (now damaged further than when first seen in 1970s). Huge terrace on north side of downs from Newlands Corner to east of (new) A25 and then to west of A25 in woods until flat ground - line goes to cross roads A25 and A246. Zig Zag south of Pyford Church and north of modern road which closes with it; also evidence of direct line up steep escarpment.
Unpublished at present, available NEHHAS Archives, Roman Roads.

Alignment off Stane Street ****

Papers left by the late A J Clark indicate 3 further excavations were made on the OS alignment, but do no extend it. Two near Ewhurst, where also further field work from 1980s reported during ploughing and 1987 wind damage to woods showing large stones in roots.
Alan Hall & Judie English, Surrey Arch Collections 91, 280, 2004.


Indications of possible agger in field east of Forest Farm TQ 112 054, & hollow way in field west of Cherwell Road TQ 112054.
Alex Vincent, Worthing Arch Soc Newsletter Vol 2, No. 21, Winter 1998/9, pp 7 & 8.


Alignment Plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus likely Roman layout sighting positions, & mansio sites.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

Resistivity in Lavant Road, Lavant, W Sussex

Latest line of this Road to Chichester North Gate was tested by resistivity on lawns of two houses in Lavant Road. Results support the line on OS maps, but not as convincing as hoped.
Chichester & District Arch Soc Newsletter, Sept 2001

Binderton, Rummages Barn, West Sussex ****

Excavations 1983 on line of Chichester - Silchester Roman Road. Enclosure and road ditches examined. "It is now clear that the line of the road was adjusted on the crest of Heathbarn Down.. to bring the alignment to Chichester. Precise point of realignment appears to be at SU 84453 12495... 5m west of that published on OS 25" map..."
James Kenny, Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 123 (1985), pp 61 - 72 (Illus.)

Stedham-with-Iping, Brook Farm, West Sussex ****

Line of Chichester-Silchester Roman Road was checked at SU 8488 2025 in advance of oil drilling. A layer of metalling was discovered for c. 50m. Remainder of the area had been possibly damaged by recent ploughing.
Robin Holgate, Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 126 (1988), pp 230 -31 (Illus.).

River Wey Crossing Neatham, Hants ****

South escarpment of river Wey likely to be too steep for Road to follow OS course. At base of escarpment on OS line a terrace starts to gently climb the escarpment rising to the west. 20' wide but largely buried by falls of earth though engineering cutback clear. Just north of Wey, Road visible on airphoto, and found in 1970s Alton by-pass excavation where the buildings of Roman period settlement (presumed VINDOMI from Iter XV) front onto the Road. A mansio found to north of settlement with the Road going through it - most of metalling removed by ploughing. The Road continued through fields connecting with agger terraces marked on OS maps on Holybourne Down. Margary's route through New Lane is wrong. Distinct swelling across south flood plain of Wey but not on OS line may be the causeway crossing of the Road for it lines up with cobbles north of the Wey found in 1970s excavations. May cause Wey to be crossed at right angles.
R H G Whaley, river Wey terrace, NEHHAS J 3 No. 9 2004.
M Millet & D Graham "Excavations on the Romano-British Small Town at Neatham, Hampshire 1969 - 1979", Hampshire Field Club & Farnham and District Museum Society, 1986.

Cleves Lane, Upton Grey, Hants - Nil result

Evaluation on OS line gave no trace of Road surface nor ditches.
Steve Weaver, Thames Valley Archaeological Services, in Archaeology in Hampshire Annual Report, Hampshire County Council 1998, p13.

Greywell Road, Hatch Basingstoke

Compacted burnt flint recorded in excavation, possibly the surface of the Chichester Roman Road or a levelled burnt mound. However stripping elsewhere did not find any evidence, except for a ditch of probable Roman date approximately following the OS line but not forming a straight alignment, and crossed the line obliquely. The Road was identified 3km to the north during a watching brief on the projected line, of a metalled gravel surface c 6m wide with side ditches.
Richard Oram, Thames Valley Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire, 2003, Hampshire Studies 61 2006 p1. H Moore, Underground Electricity Cable Pipeline, Basingstoke, Watching Brief, TVAS Report 01/91, 2001

Trenching across 155, N Hants ****

Line cut by a number of trenches. Cable trenching near the junction with the Roman Silchester Winchester Road found little evidence of it, but did find a Roman occupation site. To the east of Basingstoke, near Whitmarsh Lane it appeared exactly on the OS line, consisting of c 6m gravel bank flanked by side ditches. Road's surface was a sorted bedding of fine flints capped by a very compacted layer. Nothing was visible on the ground surface. No evidence on the OS line was found nearby in the Great Binfields Housing Development Site 3.
Ron Brading, Southern Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire 2000, Hampshire County Council, p15; Helen Moore, Thames Valley Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire 2001, p 6, TVAS Report 01/91 2001; Berkshire Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire 2001 p7.


Research excavation at SU 8550 00022 revealed the Chichester-Sidlesham Roman Road, consisting of a hardcore of beach cobbles with a pebble metalling. The flanking ditches were 15.5m apart (51'), and there was a berm between the ditches and the road of c. 4.5m wide. The eastern ditch, c 2m wide by 1.5 deep, was larger and functioned as a drain. An as of Vespasian was recovered from the road surface.
John Magilton for the Chichester & District Archaology Society in Britannia Vol XXIX (1998), p 429. Also reports in Chichester Arch Soc Newsletters of March - Sept 1998. Fieldwalking to continue to check existence of this Road elsewhere on Hunston Common.

Stockbridge on S edge of Chichester - nil result

In July 2001 Chichester & District AS cut a 28m long section, 0.5m deep, on the straight line from Hunston Common to Southgate, but found nothing. Soil had been ploughed to near 0.5m. No side ditches seen. Field walking to continue.
Chichester & District Arch Soc Newsletter, Sept 2001

At Hunston ****

Roman Road from Chichester to coast found at SU 8568 0172, 1.5km north of the 1997 excavation on Hunston Common. It was 0.5m depth, consisted of a layer of gravel compacted into the natural brick earth, but was only 7 - 9 cms thick across the central position. Total width 9.6m, but central roadway was probably about 7.2m wide, as beyond this the gravel was irregular and 2 - 4 cms thick. Only a large U shaped ditch found to west, 1.2m wide, and 0.4m below the Road material, with pebble layer into the water table. This may have been a Victorian hedge ditch and only post medieval finds were in it. Dating evidence suggests use from 1st to 4th cents AD. The two excavations appear to line up with 1971 OS air photo linear crop mark 1.5km north of Sidlesham which continues as a track leading to Street End. These lead to South Street in Chichester.
Keith Lawson, Sussex Past & Present, 99, April 2003 p7.

Asthall, Oxon

Possible bridge abutment on river Windrush at Asthall, with stones in river.
Britannia 16 290, 1985.

Wilcote, Oxfordshire

In advance of water main, a late Roman re-build of poor quality, SP365 155, with a roadside settlement to South.
Cotswold Arch Trust, Britannia XXX111, 2002, p317.

Fencott and Merton, Nr Oxford - 2 bridges ***

Timber bridge piles at 2 places in river Ray
R A Chambers, Roman Timber Bridge at Ivy Farm, Fencott with Murcott, Oxon 1979, Oxoniensia 51, 31-6, 1986. Britannia 22 258, 1991


Mid first century date for Road from Dorchester on Thames just before it reaches Silchester.
M G Fulford, S Rippon, S Ford, J Timby, B Williams, Silchester Excavations at North Gate and in the Northern Suburbs, Britannia 28 87 - 168, 1997


Margary takes lines of property boundaries, footpaths and lanes as the course of the last part of the Roman Road from Dorchester on Thames to the Devil's Highway 4a east of Silchester. But he recorded no other evidence. This section used to be on OS Map of Roman Britain until its recent purges. NEHHAS & BFRG have been mapping agger terraces running to the west of these lines. Some difficulty over resulting alignments.
R H G Whaley & G Fairclough, Berkshire Archaeological J 77 2004 - 8, p35; CBA Wessex News, Spring 2009, p22


Alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus likely Roman sighting positions, sections cut, bridge remains & milestone.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

4a Bridge at Staines ****

Timber raft foundations found.
Britannia 13 393, 1982

4A Devil's Highway Detour north of Bagshot, Berks **

Welsh maintains that Margary's 4a alignment from Staines is not the course of the Roman Road, which actually takes a number of detours. Whaley challenges this for the last two detours north of Bagshot, reviewing the substantial remains with 40' terraces against Welsh's arguments, concluding that the 4a alignment is the Roman Road with the folk name Devil's Highway. But Whaley thinks there is evidence on the most westerly detour, for which Welsh cites army survey evidence in last century, and his own field work in last decade. Evidence reduced by recent forest clearing. Detour goes to and returns from a Roman period site at Wickham Bushes, excavated in 1985 but not written up. Detour constructed so it stays on level ground compared with 4a. Whaley thinks terraces on western arm are built up too much, suggested they too were originally 40' wide. His provisional interpretation is that this is a detour provided after the original 4a alignment was constructed to ease the gradient for heavy military and other loads. There are other such examples on the network. Whaley has not investigated the other detours.
Tom Welsh, Council for Independent Archaeology Newsletter, No. 19, Dec 1995. Richard Whaley, Council for Independent Archaeology Newsletter No. 28, March 1998. NEHHAS Archives - Roman Roads.

Excavations east of Crowthorne

TVAS cut trenches across the line for over a km east of Crowthorne, but report that little of the original Road remains. Some patches of Roman metalling occurred, mainly in one trench, but generally only modern. SU8457 6436 to SU8586 6445.
Steve Preston & Dianielle Milbank, Work by Thames Valley Arch Services, CBA Wessex News Sept 2006, April 2007.

4B PORTWAY Trenching N Hants *****

Cable trenching just west of Skate's Farm found a mixed lime/sand base with large flints above, probably capped with gravel.
Ron Brading, Southern Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire 2000, Hampshire County Council, p15.


Water main trenching down centre of Road found well preserved agger. Where tar, agger under .5m deposits, elsewhere only thin layer of chippings and agger close to being exposed.
N Adams, AC Arch, Britannia XXXII, 2001, p370.

Settlement at Shapwick, Dorset ****

Roman settlement astride Roman Road to river, may be Vindogladia of Itinerary XV. Road found under soils as 10cms of flint gravel with some heathstone and greensand on levelled chalk bedrock. Roman coins found on road surface of 3rd & 4th Cent, with Saminan ware and coin of 2nd Cent below metalling. Discussion of earlier route to Dorchester from Badbury Rings.
M Papworth, Britannia XXVIII 1997, p354


Excavation at Charmouth***

Excavations carried out on the SW side of a double boundary climbing Thistle Hill to north of Charmouth SY3580 9458 to 3545 9480. The double boundary is shaped like an agger but only c 11' wide, and could not be excavated. But the level way to the SW contained a layer of local stone for 4m (13') from the boundary, followed by a ditch. Boring the double boundary revealed the same local stone. This double boundary is not on the Margary route. No reference is given to field work indicating the Road's course.
Bill Putnam, Excavations on a possible Roman Road near Charmouth, CBA Wessex News, April 2007 p15

Stonebarrow Hill, Charmouth ***

Examination of remains in Margary's Roman Roads in Britain either side of Bridport in Dorset suggest 2 or 3 lane highways are present. A double or triple terrace occurs at SY397 938. This part of Margary's route is linked by air photo evidence to the excavations on Thistle Hill. 2 or 3 lane highways are proposed by Hugh Davies.
Richard Whaley, CBA Wessex News, Spring 2009, p16; Bill Putnam, CBA Wessex News Spring 2007 p15 - Thistle Hill

Axminster , Dorset **

Woodbury Farm SY2985 9746 metalling seen N side of Woodbury Lane in watching brief.
S Read, Exeter Arch , Britannia XXXI, 2000, p424.


Alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus sections cut and likely Roman sighting points.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

41b&c Repairs to Ermin Street near Cirencester ****

Early 1990s excavations for new bypass at Cowley Underbridge showed 9 Roman repair layers. Each had a new foundation layer laid on top of the previous road and finer material on top. Rutting more extensive in later Roman layers, but never penetrates foundation layer. To north of Cirencester, at Dartley Bottom, repair layers found - but fewer in number, suggesting less wear.
A Mud & others, Excavations along the side of Roman Ermin Street, Gloucestershire & Wiltshire: The Archaeology of the A419/A417 Swindon - Gloucester Road Scheme, Oxford Archaeology Unit, Oxford, 261 - 82, 1999; Britannia XXX 1999 p364


Alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus revisions and excavations sites.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

Stratton Park, East Stratton, Hants ****

Roman line not used as a highway since c 1730 was surveyed and sectioned in several places during the M3 rescue work in the 1970s. Most trenches reveal scanty metalling often of a single layer of flints "which by itself could not be taken as certain evidence of Roman origin". Trench 4 showed interesting evidence of terrace construction by closely spaced ploughing along the line of the terrace, which was 10 - 12 m wide. Modern land profile had lost the level way provided by the terrace: there appeared to be 3 roads constructed on this terrace - the latest (probably medieval) sloped with the hill nearly as much as the modern land surface.
Peter Fasham, in M3 Archaeology 1975, M3 Archaeological Rescue Committee, p 17.

Trenching across 42a N Hants

Line cut by Cable trenching near the junction with the Roman Silchester Chichester Road found little evidence of it, but did find a Roman occupation site.
Ron Brading, Southern Archaeological Services, Archaeology in Hampshire 2000, Hampshire County Council, p15.

Hyde Street, Winchester ****

Roman Road found during evaluation for re-development, on the Hyde Street frontage, with suburban occupation during late 1st to 4th cents AD. Possibly the Road continued in use to 9th - 11th cent, with disuse in 12th cent.
Winchester Museum Service, Archaeology in Hampshire 2000, Hampshire County Council p46.

Kings Worthy, St Mary's Church

2 trenches SU4929 3232 found gravel surface 39 cms thick.
S Treague, Winchester Museum Service, Britannia XXX 1999, p369


Ground inspection and air photography verify extent of agger and side ditches as far south as Upham (SU530 201). The construction of the road which had been layered, rammed and cambered is described from three sections on the alignment.
Graham Soffe and David Johnson, Rescue Archaeology in Hampshire p.99, No.2 1974


Report covers evidence resulting from rescue archaeology and fieldwork. Some 15 excavated sections over a length of 22 1/2 miles are described, allowing detailed analysis of the features of the road.
Graham Soffe and David Johnson, Rescue Archaeology in Hampshire p.99, No.2 1974

At River Meon, Hants ****

Watching brief during construction works at Meon Pool, Tanfield Park, Wickham SU5693 1140, recorded metalling, roadside ditch and drainage features close to river crossing, with early local Roman pottery. At Tanfield Lane evaluation SU5709 1131 found the Road and industrial activity to north.
S. Teague, Archaeology Section, Winchester Museum Service, in Archaeology in Hampshire Annual Report, Hampshire County Council 1998, p 75; Britannia XXX 1999, p369.

At North Boarhunt, S Hants ****

Groundwork monitored for constructing new dwelling adjacent to B2177 and the former Boars Head. Roman Road identified during excavations for septic tanks towards rear of site. Earliest surface was of 300mm compact rounded river pebbles on the natural sand - but in places it overlay a thin dark silty soil with possible traces of original turf. A second surface of small pebbles/gravel recorded. A covering of thick grey silty soil suggested disuse.
Winchester Museum Service, Archaeology in Hampshire 2000, Hampshire County Council p44; S Teague, Britannia XXXIII 2002 p348.

93 West Street Havant, S Hants

Watching brief prior to development saw no evidence for the Roman Road.
CKC Archaeology, Archaeology in Hampshire, 2003

421 Detour near Chichester

Road may have by-passed Fishbourne Palace to the North, possibly by the earthwork Hook Dyke shown on a 1771 map near Chichester.
James Kenny, Past Matters, the Heritage of Chichester District 2005, Chichester District Council.


Two sections were cut across a slight agger during rescue excavations in advance of the M27 construction. One section (SU2928 1355) revealed metalling with camber but no ditches. The second section (SU2905 1343) exposed metalling which appeared as a stretch of close-set polished pebbles, as well as a single ditch. All factors identified seemed to confirm the road’s Roman origins despite the lack of dating evidence.
Graham Soffe and David Johnson, Rescue Archaeology in Hampshire p.99, No.2 1974


Report suggests Roman Road from fieldwork, air reconnaissance and sections cut during rescue excavation. Description of road structure and side ditches identified in two sections (SU721 071 and SU727 091) are given, as well as discussion on the possibility of the road both continuing south beyond intersection with 421, and tracking north of Rowlands Castle.
Graham Soffe and David Johnson, Rescue Archaeology in Hampshire p.99, No.2 1974

43 WINCHESTER - WARNBOROUGH *****(to Cunetio)

Alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus likely Roman layout sighting points.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.

Marlborough, Wilts ****

Watching brief SU213 700 Roman Road running N from Cunetio identified.
Cotswold Arch Trust, Britannia XXXIII, 2002, p347.

45a WINCHESTER - OLD SARUM - alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment, with likely Roman layout sighting positions.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 @ NMR Swindon.


To Charterhouse by laser ***

Technique of airborne laser pulses, at low angle, makes low features stand out. Previously recognised course of 45b to south of Ubley Warren Farm showed clearly (Margary states a good piece of agger passes 100yds north of the farm Ed). This continued as an alignment more to the W for half a mile to Charterhouse and the Roman period settlement. Possibly indication that 45b continued west of settlement as found by Sir Richard Colt Hoare, but more data needed.
Simon Crutchley, Using Airborne Laser Scanning to recover the course of a Roman Road, Research News No. 5, p45, 2006-7, English Heritage


Ordnance Survey traced this Road for a lot of the way from where they show it on their maps to Ludwell (on the A30) on to the east-west Road 45b. Robert Miller undertaking surveys and trial excavations on particularly fine terrace identified by the OS at St Bartholomew's Hill. Road seen during construction of East Knoyle bye pass (brief mention on Wilts SMR). Road identified in pipeline watching brief at Monkton Deverill, some 6m wide of large flints in rammed clay, with ditches on both sides. A number of alignments in difficult country, with some still missing.
National Monument Record Roman Road 46. AC Archaeology, Wilts SMR ST 83SE302. Mick Rawlings et al Arch Sites along the Wilts Section of Codford / Ilchester Water Pipeline, Wilts Arch & Nat Hist Mag 88 p26 1995

East Knoyle ***

Sewerage trenches in 1972 revealed possible Road surface, 17' wide purpose laid of local stone. During construction of 1995 A350 bye pass a watching brief by AC Archaeology photographed a line of flints exposed by bulldozers on the line of Leigh Lane
A Claydon, The Nature of Knoyle, Hobnobs Press, East Knoyle, 2002.


Bridge abutment near Ilchester.
Britannia 21 320, 1988

Poundbury by Dorchester ****

This stretch just outside Dorchester found in long running excavations on Poundbury Iron Age hill fort and Roman cemetery.
Excavations at Poundary, Vols I & II, Dorset Hist & Arch Soc, Monographs Nos 7 & 11, 1987 & 1993.


Line to the Fort near North Tawton, Devon****

Lambert cut sections on the presumed line to the Roman fort at Coxmoor but found no constructional evidence under the bank, which had been assumed to be the agger. This repeated his previous sections reported by Margary. In 1976 Stevens observed metalling in east bank of river Toney. Griffith found air photo crop marks at Coxmoor just east of the long line of parish boundary from the Roman fort, and published a map of the Road's likely course eastwards. Salvatore & Knight found metalling in both banks of Den Brook, on the above parish boundary, together with ditches c 5.9m apart. The metalling's width was 4m, but had been cut into by a ditch interpreted as producing the parish boundary and hedge bank (another ditch being observed on the other side of the bank). This bank forms a property boundary running over a long distance. However, the metalling at Den Brook occurs to the south of this bank, only the north ditch being under it. (Explains why previous sections cut did not reveal metalling under this bank, and ploughing may have scattered it to the south, Ed.) The bottom metalling identified as coming from 1km away, while top dressing was local. They located the bottom metalling stones in the banks of river Yeo on Griffith's line, in what they think is stone work used by the Road to cross this river. Scattering of these stones - larger than at Den Brook - occur in the immediate river bed. They discuss the route to Exeter, which may vary from Margary.
M J Lambert, Roads to the Roman camp at North Tawton, Rep Trans Devonshire, 105 131-9, 1973. Stevens, The Sacred Wood, in J V S Megar (ed) To Illustrate the Monuments: Essays presented to Stuart Piggott, 1976, 240 - 4. F M Griffith, Roman Military sites in Devon, Proc Devon Arch Soc 42, 1984 11 - 32; A Nemeton in Devon? Antiquity 59 , 121-3; Devon's Past, an Aerial View, 1988. J P Salvatore & M Knight, Sections through the Roman Road from Exeter to North Tawton, Proc Devon Arch Soc No. 49, 1991, 99 - 106.


Alignment plans

Detailed alignment plans with 8 fig GRs for each alignment. Plus potential alignments for the uncertain last section to Axmouth, sections cut, resistivity traverse, & likely Roman sighting points.
G H Hargreaves, Ph D Thesis 1996 & NMR Swindon.

Shepton Mallet - Ashwick - not found

Watching brief during wood clearance, Beacon Hill ST 637 460, survey and magnetometer gave inconclusive results on postulated line. Excavation found no trace of agger or side ditches
Mark Corney & R Tabor, Britannia XXXV, 2004, p306

5c FOSS WAY, BATH ****

St Swithin's Yard, Walcot St, Bath

Roman Road found ST7515 6548 linking walled area with Foss Way. Road lined with Roman town houses.
M Heaton, Bath Arch Trust, Britannia XXXII, 2001, p369

Near Chilton Polden

Water main watching brief along A39 found metalling probably of Road 51. No evidence of repairs or re-surfacing.
AC Archaeology, Britannia XXXV, 2004, p306.


David Johnstone records a number of sections cut through this Road in drainage ditches, revealing the metalling. These do not extend this Road beyond Old Ford (near Frome) as recorded by Margary - but makes this last point more certain.
David Johnstone, Roman Roads in Britain, Spur, 1979, p151


Confirmation through goephysics that it met modern A4 at SU 133 684. To the east its causewayed route is followed by the modern road. At SU 139 685 the two routes separate, the Roman Road running south of the A4 across water meadow. Here agger a recognisable bank. Geophysics and excavation recently showed the Road has "shifted" in response to flooding; in one phase constructed with a stone revetment on its river-side.
G. Swanton, Wiltshire Archaeology M forthcoming.

54 BATH - SEA MILLS ****

Clifton, Bristol

Evaluation at Stoke Road, Dardham Down ST5706 7501 found cambered mettalled remains thought to be the Bath - Sea Mills Roman Road, with one drainage ditch. Near to modern road.
Bristol Region Arch Services, Britannia XXXIII, 2002, p345


Further field evidence and detailed alignment plans for 10 km. Excavation in 1991 on expected alignment on the line of Cirencester bypass did not show clear evidence.
G H Hargreaves & A W Boarder, in Cirencester Excavations V, Cotswold Archaeological Trust, Oct 98.


Excavations at Barcombe Roman villa revealed Roman Road NE - SW 500m south of the villa. Flint metalling on clay agger on bedding flints. Thought to link NW Lewes area to Roman Road 14 from London.
Britannia XXXVII, 2006, p425; XXXVIII, 2007, p298.


Traces of flint metalled Road south of walled enclosure.
F Aldsworth & D Rudding, Sussex Arch Collections 133, 1995, p 103; Britannia XXXII, 2001, p347; XXXI 2000, p428; XXV 1994, p288; XXIV 1993, p307.


Stukeley explored a route from Farnham to 4a which he connects with his route from Farnham - Alresford, but admits a shortage of evidence. Hughes provides a detailed route from Rapley Farm near Bagshot on 4a, Farnborough Green, Cove Common, Aldershot Common towards Caesar's Camp. Some evidence cited.
William Stukeley, Itinerarium Curiosum Vol 1, Baker & Leigh 1776. G M Hughes, A History of Windsor Forest Part 1, Ballantyne Hanson & Co 1890.


Evaluation trenching identified agger & metalled surface of at least two phases of road constuction to rear of Groundwell Farm, SU 1521 8891. Further sections west & east give alignment SEE - NWW. This would connect to Ermin Street 2.5 miles north of Durocornovium (Lower Warborough). Believed it served newly discovered Roman quarries and possible temple further west along same ridge. Well preserved wagon ruts on Road's north side implied transit of heavy wagons, while returning empty wagons on south side leave shallow ruts - left hand side driving implied. Road had been repaired several times.
B. Walters, Wilts Arch Soc, Britannia XXX 1999, p369


No evidence of an east - west Roman Road found in excavation 1976 "although anticipated on a line between 0520 and 0525". Verbal reports that an east - west gravel surface had been observed at 8109 0523 during garage construction c 1972.
Hugh Toller, Sussex Archaeological Collections Vol 119 (1981) pp 214 - 16.


St George's Lane

Area NW of St George's Lane adjacent to new Fenwick Dept Store TR1503 5760 largely outside town in 1st cent. Around late 1st cent NW - SE aligned Road constructed defining town limits. Later town expanded, Road re-laid 3rd and 4th cents.
Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXXV, 2004, p313-4.

Former Gravel Walk

SW of former Gravel Walk, TR 1446 5757, N - E to S - W aligned Roman Road constructed SE part of site late 1st cent or early 2nd at right angles to Watling Street.
Britannia XXXIV, 2003, p355.


Excavations prior to housing found a SW - NE road with 5 metallings in base of wide hollow way which remained in use to late 3rd cent TR1465 5825.
J Rady, Canterbury Arch Trust, Britannia XXVIII 1997, p448 - 52


Done suggested the straight road between Bracklesham and Birdham has place name evidence indicating Roman origin.
W E P Done, Looking Back in Sussex 1953; James Kenny, Roman Roads (around Chichester), Past Matters, the Heritage of Chichester District, 2005, Chichester District Council.


Development of road system around Cirencester, revisions based on alignment plans, sighting points, and excavations. Receece argues the ideal town site not used, but Roads laid out as if it was.
G H Hargreaves, Cirencester Excavations V, Cotswold Archaeological Trust, 1998. R Receece, Siting of Roman Corinium, Britannia XXXIV 2003, p 276


Gas pipe watching brief SU1375 9268 on Great Ross Lane found cambered metalled surface of 2 layers Coral Ragrubble 70cms thick 4 m wide. Previously seen in earlier investigation SU1349 9264 when Roman date proposed.
Cotswold Arch Trust, Britannia XXXIII, 2002, p347.


Probably a class 3 or private road linking settlement to official network. Excavations of Romano-British settlement at Barnsley Park (4 miles NE of Cirencester) described by Webster et al. Fieldwork by Jermy links this site by agger, internal and field boundaries, tracks and terrace from SP 0832 0587 to SP 071 035 on Akeman Street.
Webster G et al, Trans Bristol & Glos Arch Soc, 1981, 1982, 1986
Jermy K E, Britannia xix 1988, 412-3.


Possible bridge abutment on the stream Piddle, on a minor road.
Britannia 16 306, 1985


Excavations N of building 1995 - 7 SU8407 0475 found surfaces of 2 Roads.
J Manley, D Ruskin, Sussex Arch Soc, Britannia XXX 1999, p372.


During construction of new golf course, contractors excavated a number of ponds along a stream, revealing a section of unknown Roman Road. Showed flint metalling, on a sand agger which in places was on a layer of flints. Below this Road was a large number of stakes sunk into the clay, mostly burnt, which dated to early Roman or late Iron Age. This Roman Road traced by resistivity south towards Ham Farm at Hassocks (towards the Roman settlement). But no trace in the north bank of pond. Possibly it led from settlement to stream or building there - Roman building materials found. See also 150
Mid Sussex Field Archaeological Team Newsletter 29, March 1996


Excavations in 1978, 1981-2 by HAARG revealed evidence of a Roman Road along the ridge between the rivers Brede & Pannel - which were likely to be estuaries in Roman times. The slag surface was 22' wide on a good agger with a steep camber and ditch. The alignment pointed to the site of Old Place Manor and a possible crossing of the Brede. Margary recorded Roman Tracks in this region (Roman Ways in the Weald), including Track 11 on a similar ridge north of the Brede (not included in Roman Roads in Britain).
Zoe Vahey & John Clements, HAARG Report 4 No. 3, Hastings Area Archaeological Research Group, available Sussex Arch Soc Library.


Located during excavations of the Roman villa in 1978 - 80. Road lies on south bank of Kennet, 2 miles west of Hungerford (in Berks), SU 3012 7051. Constructed of gravel and clay with ditches on both sides. Assessed as mid 1st century, with alignment NW - SE. Road identified at 2 other points: 800 m west in the side of the river; and 500 m east towards the Tudor Mansion. Purported to pass under front lawns of the house. Also located 2 miles east of Hungerford during archaeological work to rear of Charnham Lane. Excavators propose that the Road may go southwards across Hants to Bosham Harbour; and northwards to Ermin Street - where its alignments may be a continuation of Ermin Street's alignment SE from Wanborough.
B. Walters, Wilts Arch Soc.


Tracks, bridleway and local tradition all combine to suggest road from route 155 linking to route 421 in region of Portsdown Hill. Route begins south of the Iping March mansio (SU844 241) and below an Iron Age hillfort at Hammer Wood close by 155. It continues to touch the Fyning Ridge and develops into a bridle way, Green Lane, and descends towards the Combe. (Tullacombe & Combe Hill referred to). The track emerges from dense forestry land south of the B2070 at Hill Brow and heads for the R. Rother past Rogate and the site of the 12thC Durford Abbey (SU777 234). Local tradition has it that it follows a south-westerly direction towards the South Downs, above Harting, leading to Foxcombe, off the B2146 (SU800 186). The writer then suggests the track meets the Route 421 in the region of Portsdown Hill.
Roger Chatterton-Newman, West Sussex History No.58 Oct. 1996


Bow Bells House, Bread Street, EC4

Layers of compacted gravel, aligned N - W, S - E, TQ 3230 8114, possibly serving nearby quaries. Timber lined drain south of the Road. Pottery suggests Road in use 330AD.
Britannia XXXVII, 2006, p418.

Gresham St, EC2

Metalled surface SE -NW interpreted as a Roman Road found by MOLAS, 25 Milk St, 14 - 18 Gresham St TQ 32352 81328. 10 Gresham St an E - W aligned Road made of loosely beaten layers of gravel and earth TQ3228 8133. Contrasts with a previously found N - S Road of well maintained clean gravel.
Britannia XXXVII, 2006, p419; XXXIV 2003 p340

6 Bread Street Place, EC4

E - W Road runs across south of the site, TQ 33000 81650, previously observed to the west, with ditch to north. Probably constructed AD 120.
MOLAS, Britannia XXXVI, 2005, p433.

Watling Street

Sewer shaft TQ32321 81076 in 2m x 2m pit revealed natural brick earth overlaid by several likely Roman Road surfaces and medieval above.
MOLAS, Britannia XXXVI, 2005, p435.


976 Crondall Charter "strete" entry led to a Roman Road search around Blackbush Airfield. Substantial terracing found on Yateley Drive and Ivyhole Hill. Theory that 4a alignment from Staines carried on to Winchester: T Welsh NEHHAS Archives Roman Roads - would pass near above. A Charter of c 1106 from Bishop Aelfwine to Odiham mentions obligation to repair the Roman Road between Winchester & Staines; MacGregar & Stapleton (Odiham Castle 1200 - 1500, Alan Sutton 1989) suggest it goes on modern road east out of Winchester (see entry below) then NE to Mud Farm, Abbotstone, Bradley, Herriard, Weston Corbett, Upton Grey, N Warnborough, Winchfield, Elvetham (nr Ivyhole Hill), Bagshot, Sunningdale, Egham & Staines. Last 4 places probably on 4a. Stretches between Herriard - N Warnborough may be modern roads. Otherwise only constructional evidence so far being NEHHAS finds above.
R H G Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletters No. 78 , Sept 1997; No. 83, May 1999, NEHHAS J Vol 1, 2000, p 29.


Brian Philp has collected evidence that NOVIOMAGVS was on Road 14 at West Wickham, not on 1C, and that a Roman Road ran from there to VAGNIACAE - Springhead on 1C. A length was identified at West Wickham in 1966. Excavations at Ford Croft in 1988 found a 6m wide Roman Road on the projected alignment. The Springhead end of the same alignment was found in 1963 during A2 bridge construction. Philip thinks this is the Iter II route. Further work needed on its route across country.
A. Lusher, Sunday Telegraph 30 July 2000, p16. Brian Philp, Kent Archaeological Review 120, 1995 p225; 141 Autumn 2000, p2


Metalling under old A31

During digging of a cable trench opposite Magdalen Cemetery, Chilcomb, a thick layer of flint metalling observed below the makeup of the existing road. This may have formed a Roman Road heading due east from Winchester on the line of the existing road.
S Teague, Archaeology Section, Winchester Museum Service, Archaeology in Hampshire 1999, p55; Britannia 32 p373 2001

End of straight A31

When the A31 turns towards the north, line to its west on air photo and terrace on the ground. Agger points to this spot on hills south of New Alresford, where a turn more to the north seen. Substantial evidence on this new alignment of most forms on to Four Marks @ 29° north of grid east. Iter route Vindomi (Alton) - Winchester.
NEHHAS Newsletters 75-6, 80-1 & 82. Unpublished correspondence of I D Margary to A J Clark on terrace (Surrey Arch Soc Lib), Mrs F N Betts to Margary (Soc of Ants. MS 954 (13)(1956-8).

Chawton Park Wood to Four Marks, Ropley and Bishops Sutton ***

Survey of 2 routes resulting from papers left by the late A J Clark, believed to be a Centuriation grid. Picked up from Chawton Park Wood and its Zig Zag (below), the two routes as plotted not parallel. They are parallel on the next plotted map, with several OS map errors identified. Distance between the two routes slightly over 50 Actus, and slightly under at Bishops Sutton, discussion on cause. Much of evidence contrast enhanced air photography, with some substantial ground evidence in the second map between Four Marks and Ropley. Substantial right angle Road also surveyed and excavated. Found that a first Road laid on the sloping ground as large flints set at 45° to the roadway, and later up-graded to an agger terrace dated by Roman pottery, This Cross Road may have been a through Road as it points at the probable port of Chichester and the Roman settlement at Thatcham
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter 96, Summer 2005, 98, 100 -101 2006, 102 Spring 2007, 106 Spring 2008; NEHHAS Journal Vol 3 Nos 12 - 15 2007


Continuation Winchester - Vindomi above. Two rival routes. Whaley: Wood Street (Guildford), Hog's Back (terrace), Farnham, south of river Way to Vindomi, Alton. Scatter of map, field, photo & constructional evidence; several parallel alignments. Boas & Graham (private communication): similar to Whaley till Flexford Green Lane temple site, when diverges continuing along Greenlane, Farnham Park (dig - nil result), north of river Way to Vindomi, Alton. Roman coin and find evidence, little constructional, not straight alignments, likely to be class 3. Potential Roman terrace surveyed on Green Lane Boas & Graham route, - may be associated with Roman Temple. NEHHAS Newsletters 16, 21, 58, 82. Greenlane 79 & NEHHAS J 2000 p16. NEHHAS Archives - Roman Roads. Current NEHHAS project to survey & map @ 1:10560 the parallel alignments:

Neatham Alignments to Chawton Park Wood ****

Westerly extension of Neatham Alignments across Alton point to large terrace remains climbing Ackender Wood. Contrast enhanced air photo streaks (OS/RAF 1947 & MultiMap 2000) lead to Zig Zag in difficult country of Chawton Park Wood. Excavation on high ground east of Zig Zag over air photo streaks found 2 ditches 60 Roman feet apart with the natural clay cut out 30cms and filled with a band of large flints containing a worked core.
NEHHAS Newsletter 92 & 93 2004, 101 2006, 104 2007; NEHHAS Journal 3 Nos. 9 & 11 2007

Neatham Alignments ****

10,000' of near continuous engineered terraces, airphoto streaks, modern lanes or footpaths. Three alignments all @ 28° north of Grid east. When obstacle encountered there is a deviation, after which the 28° direction resumed. Alignments originate accurately at the start of the terrace on south escarpment of river Wey on 155 , and terminate on an agger terrace in Gaston Copse SU 768 423 at edge of same Wey escarpment. Agger through rest of Copse on a more westerly direction.
NEHHAS J 1 2000 p23, 3 No. 8 2004. NEHHAS Newsletters 58, 82.

Section at Mill Court, Neatham Alignments ****

A Section examined at Mill Court SU756 417 in the centre of the Neatham alignments, in one of the largest remains found on this Road, where it is climbing a steep escarpment. The escarpment is cut into for about half the Road, and the chalk rubble excavated is built up for the other half. Metalling material outcrops in a hollow way. Running Surface c 23' or 7.3m wide.
NEHHAS Newsletter 95 Spring 2005, NEHHAS Journal 3 No.8a 2007.

Gaston Copse - Bentley Station through Isington ****

Trail of Air Photo streaks of light lines bounded by 2 dark line c 40' apart leading from Gaston Copse to foot of huge causeway adjudged to be Roman in origin. It gets over difficult escarpments running south of Bentley station. Magnetometary reveals intense activity between the dark air photo streaks. New methods used for air photos of photocopying them to increase contrast, and viwing in different lighting.
NEHHAS Newsletter 90 & 96; NEHHAS Journal 3 Nos. 6, 7a, 7b & 12 2007.

Excavation at Isington ****

Excavation over air photo streaks of light line bounded by dark lines at SU778 427, where there was a strong magnetic anomaly over the streaks. The dark lines were ditches, the subsoil and lower layers was very stony and would be suitable to form a Running Surface. Between the ditches the subsoil contained Limonite, a form of Iron Ore, giving the magnetic anomaly. Concluded the Romans must have dug out the whole subsoil to add the Limonite, probably removing some of the clay to improve the Running Surface.
Further excavation on the
direct route was more substantial, with the natural clay dug out 40cms and filled with slightly different material from the natural thin stoney layer. There were 2 ditches 70 Roman feet apart.
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter No. 99 Summer 2006, Journal 3 No. 7c 2007 & forthcoming.

Bentley - Farnham ***

Report on lost section, with air photo evidence including through woods at Holt Pound Enclosure on line 100' south of East Farnham alignment. (Way found through difficult country below).
NEHHAS Journal 3 No. 5 2004

Farnham - Bentley Magnetic Anomaly ****

A large negative magnetic anomaly found over air photo streaks in Holt Pound Inclosure. The anomaly ends as the line runs into a steep escarpment. But air photo streaks continue on the line in difficult country, and have been traced back to Gaston copse (above). Remains of a causeway found across narrow valley. Further streaks remain on high ground to the Bentley Causeway(above). Thus three routes, the direct route to Gaston Copse lilely to be the first. Dig over magnetic anomaly found two terraces made by increasing thickness of natural gravel layer, both dated by Roman pottery from nearby kiln.
NEHHAS Newsletter Nos. 96-7 2005; No. 100 Autumn 2006, No. 105 Winter 2008, No. 108 Autumn 2008. CBA Wessex Newsleter April 2008

Farnham Alignment ****

Based on footpath marked on older maps going through southern built up Farnham, originally a way through the Saxon 3 field system. Direction 28° north of Grid east, but displaced south of the Neatham alignments (last item). Engineering evidence found as the Farnham Alignment approaches the river Wey escarpments at Compton - terraces and causeways down both escarpments. Farnham alignment aligned on combe on east escarpment SU 861 468, where thought the Road went to ease the steep river escarpment.
NEHAS Newsletter 58 1987 & 89 April 2002; Journal 3 No.4 2004.

Hog's Back Alignment ****

Agger terraces leading from the combe (last item), continued by air photo streaks which line up with such streaks on Hog's Back - where terraces surveyed 1987. Further terraces seen on Hog's Back side 1999, dig occurring. Alignment 120' south of Farnham Alignment due to negotiating river Wey escarpments - same behaviour as in Neatham Alignments . Direction measured 27° north of Grid east. If Romans were taking a constant direction (alignments made parallel on the ground) they would not form a constant National Grid direction, and would be curved on OS maps not straight lines. 27° would take the Road to Ewell, a Roman town on Stane Street.
NEHAS Newsletter 58 1987, and 89 April 2002; Journal 3 No.3 2004.

Hog's Back excavation ****

Excavation on air photo streaks (last item) near summit of Hog's Back SU882 479. They show a white envelope in one field (taken as plough damage reaching chalk bedrock) within which are two narrow parallel dark lines some 20' apart. The southern dark line is the cut-back for a terrace cut into the chalk. The northern dark line is a large up hill ditch. In plough damaged field, 1 in 3 trenches shows well preserved features. In adjacent field near field boundary all 4 trenches show well preserved features, with evidence of a build-up below the terrace and slumped metalling. Running Surface width c 25'. Cuts into chalk for terrace and uphill ditch sealed in subsoil dating them to earlier than c 1000 AD.
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter 94, 2005; NEHHAS J 3, No. 3a 2005.

Centuriation on Winchester Road

Centuriation grid of Roman Estate Roads coming up between Alton and Winchester. From Alton to Hog's Back in Surrey intense bands of field boundaries parallel and right angles to the Roman Road's direction occur on both sides of the Road for up to c 70 Actus. Intense bands also found from Chawton to near where the A31 out of Winchester turns more to the north, coinciding with where the Centuriation Roads start and finish. Substantial right angle Road also surveyed and excavated. Found that a first Road laid on the sloping ground as 2 coarses of large flints set at 45° to the roadway, and later up-graded to an agger terrace dated by Roman pottery. This Cross Road may have been a through Road as it points at the probable port of Chichester and the Roman settlement at Thatcham
NEHHAS Newsletters 91, 93, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 106; NEHHAS Journal 3 No.10, 12 - 15 2007 & forthcoming.

Bentley Bypass, Hants - nil result

Watching brief during construction of bypass. Map shows Graham & Boas Road passing across bypass, but no report of any remains or evidence observed. However, this was not an excavation, but merely observations as earthmovers worked.
Southampton Archaeological Unit 1994 Report.

Chobham - Chertsey

Thought locally that the straightish road from Chobham Park and Stonehill to Chertsey is Roman. Bird suggests it may be the Winchester - London Roman Road via Chertsey. Kink W of Accomodation Rd may represent a Zig Zag over ridge. Stokes has investigated but found no evidence. He suggests the line could originally have gone through Chobham Park, but diverted by Henry VIII - line of house and ground features within 1 degree of the line of the Roman Road.
David Bird, Archaeology of Surrey to 1541. David Stokes


Two aerial photographs show crop marks across Burghfield, Berks, aligned parallel to each other, pointing to NE corner of Silchester. May link a wharf on Kennet or Thames to the town. Berkshire Field Research Group have studied maps and documents in County Record Office, and many hundred air photographs, and undertaken foot surveys. In March 1998 they excavated 30 m trench across putative ditches at Amner's Farm, Burghfield, though negative result. Further excavation Feb - April 1999. Interpretation and publication awaited.
In the Field 1998-9.


Causeways may have often been used on Roman Roads to bridge obstructions, but across valleys in particular are liable to be washed away. One survives on the Guildford to Winchester Road (above), and it indicated air photo methods of detecting. For avenues of trees in woods are liable to show up on air photos, the greater depth of soil over the washed out causeway encourages tree growth. They may show up over fields as a darker band. Two causeways were detected across a narrow valley, with remains of one clear on the ground.
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter No. 105, Winter 2008; CBA Wessex Newsletter April 2008, p11.


Theory that Roman Roads form spine for centuriation for large parts of Britain (the laying of field systems parallel and right angles to the Road).
A Richardson, Further evidence of Centuriation in Cumbria, Trans Cumberland & Westmoreland Arch Soc 86 71-8, 1986. J Peterson, Trigonometry in Roman Cadastoes, in J Y Guillaumin (ed), Mathématiques dans l'Antiquité, Universite de St-Etienne, 185 -203, 1992

Centuriation in Kent and Hants

Website reports work in progress on Centuriations over large parts of England and Wales. A substantial one appears from Canterbury to the coast. Several parcels are appearing on the Winchester - Guildford Road.
J Peterson, ; "Le réseau centurié "Kent A"", In Atlas Historique des cadastres d'Europe, 2, edited by Clavel-Lévêque, M. and Orejas, A., Dossier 8, Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Community, 2002. R Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter 91, 93, 96, 98, 100, 101, 102, 106; NEHHAS Journal 3 10, 12 - 15 2007 & forthcoming; Hampshire Field Club Newsletter Spring 2008; CBA Wessex Newsletter Apr 2007 p11, Sept 2007 p11.

Centuriation in Icenian territory

Indications in modern landscape with Actus spacings, and grid of estate roads with diagonals as in Italy and N Africa. May form squares or oblongs of 20 Actus bounded by roads (limites) with possibly lesser limites intercisivi. Thought this Iceni system abandoned early before the boundaries become well established.
S Frere, Britannia XXXI 2000, p350.


Roman Roads usually get lost in hills, but substantial engineering was necessary which can be recognised. Different types of terraces described, with examples; typical damage suffered, and how to reconstruct. Visual and optical methods for ploughed out terraces.
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS J Vol 1 2000 p13


Theory that some Roman roads laid out parallel to Foss Way (such as Stane Street) and at right angles to it (such as Ermin Street).
B Jones & D Mattingly, An Atlas of Roman Britain, Guild Publishing, London, 94, 1990


Theory that Roman Roads tend to form a square grid with sides of 12 miles.
R W Bagshawe, Roman Roads, 5th edn, Shire Archaeology, Princes Risborough, 13, 1994


Langford & Longford are more than randomly found on or near Roman Roads. Except for Cornwall, Devon & Somerset, in England & Wales nearly a quarter stand on Roman Roads, and over half are within 2km.
K E Jermy, Britannia, Vol 23, pp 228-9, 1992.


Davies dismisses the long held view that these straight roads were laid out between one point and another by using intermediate points determined by smoke signals, citing the lack of communication. He advocates the use of the groma, an instrument able to set out a right angle, with a series of traverses of perpendicular lines, to create a temporary map of the region in which they wished to construct a Roman Road. The Road would then have been planned on such a map, and then transferred to the ground.
H E H Davies, Britannia Vol 29, pp 1 - 16, 1998


For early invasion Roads, calculated that 1000 men would need 15 weeks to build a Road from Richborough to London. For fully engineered Roman Road, 3400 men would need three years for same length.
A Davis, The Roman Road from Richborough to London (an estimate of the Construction Times for Tactical & Strategic Roads). Royal School of Military Engineering, Chatham, 1984. J Peddie, Conquest - the Roman Invasion of Britain, Sutton, Stroud, 1997


Published Ph D thesis by retired modern transport researcher at the Transport Research Lab. Analyses data on design, planning, structure, width, gradient, water crossing, repairs and development of the Roman Road network. Some (previously) accepted theories challenged.
H Davies, Roads in Roman Britain, Tempus, Stroud, 191 pages, 2002


Found that photocopying air photos at different darknesses from light to dark increases the number of lines visible. Effect explained. Used extensively on Winchester - London Road. Contrast enhancement of digital air photos also used - but understand others also use this.
Richard Whaley, NEHHAS Newsletter 90, 2003; NEHHAS Journal 3 No.7a, 2004.


Discussion of errors which Romans may have allowed in laying out their Roads from surveys on some major routes
C Taylor, Roads and Tracks of Britain, Ch 2, J M Dent and Son, London 1979

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